Bladder cancer epidemiology in the world and in Tukey

  • Sultan Eser
  • Raziye Özdemir

Bull Urooncol 2012;11(1):1-9


In this review, it was aimed to evaluated the epidemiology of bladder cancer in Turkey and the world based on national and international literature.


Bladder cancer is one of the most common cancers in Turkey and in the world. The highest incidence rates are found in the countries of Europe, North America, and Northern Africa. It is more frequent in men than in women. Male:female incidence ratio is 4.0 in the worldwide. 90% of bladder cancers is transitional cell carcinomas in the worldwide. A majority of bladder cancers associated with schistosomiasis (75%) are squamous cell carcinoma. Smoking and occupational exposures are the major risk factors in Western countries, whereas chronic infection with Schistosoma haematobium in developing countries, particularly in Africa and the Middle East. In developed countries declines both in the incidence and mortality have been observed since 1990s due to reductions in prevalence of smoking and occupational exposures.


Bladder cancer is an important public health issue for Turkey and the world. Control programs for tobacco and occupational risk factors would be the crucial measures in bladder cancer control.

Keywords: bladder cancer, epidemiology, incidence, mortality, survival, risk factors