Current analysis of urinary biomarkers for prostate cancer

  • Faruk Yencilek
  • Hakan Koyuncu

Bull Urooncol 2011;10(2):11-16

Prostate cancer is one of the most encountered health problem in male population. Therefore, extensive screening for prostate cancer has led to increased incidence, improved disease specific survival, but also to overdiagnosis and overtreatment. The diagnosis of prostate cancer depends on DRE and measurement of serum PSA, used for screening method. PSA is unique for prostate gland but not specific to the prostate adenocancer. High serum PSA levels can also be determined in diseases like BPH and prostatitis. In other words, the specificity of serum PSA measurement in detecting prostate adenocancer by itself is lower and causes numerous false positive results and many unnecessary biopsies. The limitations of serum PSA have led to active investigation of new biomarkers in recent years.

Numerous protein, molecules, DNA or RNA markers in urine are explored in order to improve detection and prognostic evaluation of prostate cancer. Within these tests PCA3 measurement in the urine is the most hopeful one. Several clinical studies have demonstrated the utility of PCA3 for the diagnosis of prostate cancer and some studies suggest that PCA3 may also have prognostic value.

Up to now, the PCA3 urine test is probably the best test among urine markers to support serum PSA for predicting biopsy outcome. Also, it has proven clinical relevance, providing greater diagnostic accuracy than traditional serum biomarkers.

Keywords: PCA3, prostate cancer, urinary biomarker