Does Urinary Cytology Find the Value in the Detection and Follow-up of Urinary Bladder Cancer?


  • Kutsal Yörükoğlu

Bull Urooncol 2014;13(2):109-112

The role of Urine cytology and urine tumor markers in the diagnosis and screening for urinary bladder tumors and in decreasing the frequecy of cystoscopic examinations in bladder cancer patients has been argued. In this review, the recent status of urine cytology and urine tumor markers is assesed. High early recurrence rate has been noted in the cases with positive urine cytology or urine tumor markers but negative cystoscopy. Cystoscopy has been defined to be insufficient in certain conditions in which flourescence cystoscopy was positive in a majority of cases with negative conventional cystoscopy. The wide range in variation of sensitivity and specificity values of urine cytology and urine tumor markers in the literature may be the result of the differences in study designs. Sensitivity of urine cytology is low, but specificity is high. On the other hand, sensitivity of urine tumor markers is high and may be important in detection of recurrences and low-grade tumors. Value of urine cytology together with cystoscopy is still important in screening patients with hematuria, and the diagnosis of high grade tumors and carcinoma in situ in the surveillance of bladder cancer patients. In addition, urine cytology should be routinely used in patients with bladder tumor as well as those with ureteral tumor for screening of upper urinary system. In the surveillance of bladder tumor patients, use of a urine tumor marker with urine cytology may help to diagnose low-grade tumor recurrences and decrease the frequency of cystoscopic examinations. (Bulletin of Urooncology 2014;13:109-112)

Keywords: Bladder cancer, cystoscopy, urine, cytology, marker