The Approach to High Risk Bladder Cancers in The Absence of Bacillus Calmette Guérin: What should Be the Treatment and Follow Up?


  • Polat Türker
  • Levent Türkeri

Bull Urooncol 2014;13(2):103-108

Bacillus Calmette Guérin (BCG), is the optimal bladder-sparing treatment option for patients with high-risk, non-muscle invasive bladder cancer. Recently, the application of BCG has been hindered due to the problem of its availability in Turkey. Alternative treatment options are needed until this problem is solved. In this article, the recommendations about the preferred treatment options and the follow-up, are summarized in the light of the current literature. (Bulletin of Urooncology 2014;13:103-108)

Keywords: BBCG, high risk non-muscle invasive bladder cancer, EMDA, thermo-chemotherapy